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Amsterdam to Westerbork

Book at Gronnbuene Rorbu Hotel, Andenes. No Reservation Costs. Great Rates. Find What You Need At Booking.Com, The Biggest Travel Site In The World Amsterdam to Westerbork by subway, train and bus The journey time between Amsterdam and Westerbork is around 3h 50m and covers a distance of around 208 km. The fastest journey normally takes 3h. Operated by GVB, Dutch Railways (NS) and Qbuzz, the Amsterdam to Westerbork service departs from Amsterdam, Rokin and arrives in Westerbork, Burg. van. The road distance is 168.5 km. Get driving directions. How do I travel from Westerbork to Amsterdam without a car? The best way to get from Westerbork to Amsterdam without a car is to line 22 bus and train which takes 3h 10m and costs 24€ - 55€ Rome2rio makes travelling from Netherlands to Westerbork transit camp easy. Rome2rio is a door-to-door travel information and booking engine, helping you get to and from any location in the world. Find all the transport options for your trip from Netherlands to Westerbork transit camp right here

Kamp Westerbork voor en tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog

Within Amsterdam, Jews were restricted to certain sections of the city. Foreign and stateless Jews were sent directly to the Westerbork transit camp. In July 1942, the Germans began mass deportations of Jews to killing centers in occupied Poland, primarily to Auschwitz but also to Sobibor In July 1942, the Nazis started transporting Jews from Amsterdam to Westerbork. She joined the deportees of her own volition and worked in the camp's hospital. Attentiveness - aandacht in Dutch - is a term that occurs frequently in Hillesum's diary entries Answer 1 of 13: I'd like to visit Camp Westerbork (World War II concentration camp) while I'm in the Netherlands in June. Is it possible to reach by Public transport (I'll be staying in Amsterdam). Thanks From 1942 to 1945, Westerbork was a transit camp (Durchgangslager) located in the German-occupied Netherlands.As a transit camp, Westerbork served as a temporary collection point for Jews in the Netherlands prior to their deportation by the Germans to killing centers and concentration camps in the east.. For Dutch Jews, Westerbork was a key location in their experience of the Holocaust Once you take the train from Amsterdam to Westerbork burg van Weezelplein train station, how do you get to the camp? Is it walkable, or? Any info appreciated. Yorkshire_fern. Thirsk, UK 372 contributions. We are english speaking and were given books with full translations both for the camp and museum. We found it a very worthwhile visit and.

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  1. Most natives were concentrated in the Amsterdam ghetto before being moved to Westerbork transit camp in the north-east near the German border. Deportees for resettlement leaving aboard the NS passenger and freight trains were unaware of their final destination or fate, [91] as postcards were often thrown from moving trains
  2. The collection place for the Jews of Amsterdam was the Dutch Theatre, renamed in October 1941, Joodsche Schouwburg, on the Plantage Middenlaan, where more than 1,000 people could be held. Westerbork became the main transit camp for the deportations
  3. Esther Etty Hillesum (15 January 1914 in Middelburg, Netherlands -- 30 November 1943 in Auschwitz, Poland) was a young Jewish woman whose letters and diari..
  4. Oosthalen 8. 9414TG Hooghalen. Visit the website. Westerbork was a detention and transit camp during the Second World War. Well over 100,000 Dutch Jews and Roma were assembled here for transport to other concentration camps. Today there is a museum and a few monuments of remembrance to those transported and killed during World War II
  5. Starting in January 1942, some Dutch Jews were forced to move to Amsterdam; others were directly deported to Westerbork, a transit and concentration camp near the small village of Hooghalen. Westerbork was founded in 1939 by the Dutch government as the Central Refugee Camp to give shelter to Jews fleeing Nazi persecution following Kristallnacht
  6. Camp Westerbork (Dutch: Kamp Westerbork, German: Durchgangslager Westerbork) was a transit camp in Drenthe province, northeastern Netherlands, during World War II. Established by the Dutch government in the summer of 1939, Camp Westerbork was meant to serve as a refugee camp for Germans and Austrians (German and Austrian Jews in particular), who had fled to the Netherlands to escape Nazi.
  7. Anne's famous diary ends a few days before she, and the others, were suddenly arrested and put on transport, ultimately to her death. In a one-day tour outside Amsterdam we will take you to Camp Westerbork, the transit camp from where Anne Frank, and more than a 100.000 Jewish people with her were sent to Auschwitz and other camps

Amsterdam to Westerbork - 3 ways to travel via train, line

Woningkaarten Rapenburgerstraat - Stadsarchief Amsterdam

Westerbork to Amsterdam - 2 ways to travel via train, line

Westerbork was a transit camp with more than 100,000 Jews sent on trains from there to death camps Video is the only known footage of the deportation of Western European Jews to the death camp Kamp Westerbork is not an easy place to visit, especially if you are staying in one of the cities in the west of the country such as Amsterdam or Rotterdam. You will need to catch a train to the town of Assen. From Rotterdam this is 2,5 hours, from Amsterdam (go to railway station Amsterdam Zuid!) 1 hour and 45 minutes Westerbork. The community of Westerbork is situated in the northeast of the Netherlands in the province of Drenthe, 11 kms from the province capital of Assen and about 130 km (80 miles) north of Amsterdam. In a resolution proposed by the Minister of Home Affairs and approved by the Dutch cabinet on 13 February 1939, it was determined to.

In 1943 nineteen trains left Westerbork for Sobibor. Over 34.000 men, women en children from The Netherlands made this unwilling journey to this unknown destination in Eastern-Poland. With a few exceptions, these people were all killed within a five-month time span. Only 18 people out of all these Dutch transports to Sobibor survived the war Westerbork transit camp The Westerbork transit camp (Dutch: Kamp Westerbork, German: Durchgangslager Westerbork) was a World War II Nazi refugee, detention and transit camp in Hooghalen, ten kilometres (6.2 miles) north of Westerbork, in the northeastern Netherlands We were scheduled to see the Anne Frank house in Amsterdam, and she noted that Kamp Westerbork is the transport camp Anne stayed in for two weeks before transport to Bergen Belsen. The experience is both troubling and uplifting. There are two parts to the visit. First, a 4 km bus ride to to the area where the camp once was It was the final transport from the Westerbork transit camp to the Auschwitz concentration and extermination camp. Even in the Secret Annex, Anne Frank had been aware of the existence of Westerbork. She had learned about the war and the persecution of the Jews from the helpers and from radio broadcasts

Camp Westerbork was the national deportation and transit camp for Jews, Sinti and Roma in World War II. This is a daytrip for groups of up to 3 persons. Small groups are taken by car to Camp Westerbork, the former national deportation centre in the province of Drenthe, where the trains left for Auschwitz, Sobibor, Bergen Belsen. Most natives were concentrated in the Amsterdam ghetto before being moved to Westerbork transit camp in the north-east near the German border. Deportees for resettlement leaving aboard the NS passenger and freight trains were unaware of their final destination or fate, [91] as postcards were often thrown from moving trains No, there is no direct bus from Brussels station to Westerbork. However, there are services departing from Brussels-North train station and arriving at Westerbork, Burg. van Weezelplein via Amsterdam Sloterdijk, Drachten, Transferium Oost and Assen, Station. The journey, including transfers, takes approximately 8h 18m

Netherlands to Westerbork transit camp - 2 ways to travel

  1. A still from the Westerbork film made by Rudolf Breslauer, 1944, NIOD Collection, Amsterdam Producing toys in the Westerbork camp In comparison with other German camps in the Netherlands, medical facilities in Westerbork were good
  2. To travel by train from Brumunddal in Norway to Westerbork in the Netherlands, the main route leads via Sweden, Denmark and Germany. There are two main routes. Compare them and decide which one feeds your needs best. 1 Brumunddal (Norway) - Oslo (Norway) - Gothenburg (Sweden) - Hamburg (Germany) - Westerbork (Netherlands
  3. Westerbork - Monza / Milan - Amsterdam / Venice - Amsterdam / Venice - Utrecht / Milan - Utrecht / Venice - The Hague / Venice - Maastricht / Venice - Rotterdam / Florence - Amsterdam / Palermo - Amsterdam. 1 Monza (Italy) - Munich (Germany) - Westerbork (Netherlands) The route consist of more than one step. You have to buy more than one train.

History: Kamp Westerbork. During the Second World War, Camp Westerbork was a transit camp near Hooghalen in the former municipality of Westerbork in Drenthe The camp was an antechamber from which more than 102,000 Jews living in the Netherlands and 245 Roma were deported by train to concentration and extermination camps Starting in January 1942, some Dutch Jews were forced to move to Amsterdam; others were directly deported to Westerbork, a concentration camp near the small village of Hooghalen which had been founded in 1939 by the Dutch government to give shelter to Jews fleeing Nazi persecution, but would fulfill the function of a transit camp to the Nazi. A new start in Amsterdam. In early 1933, Otto and Edith took the plunge. This was the last train ever to leave Westerbork for the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp. The prisoners were packed tightly in cattle wagons, without enough food and with only a small barrel for a toilet Salomon was caught and imprisoned in Westerbork, after which he was deported to the East. On 8 June 1944, Jacob Hijman and his aunt were caught in their hiding place in Amsterdam, and incarcerated in the Westerbork concentration camp. On 4 September, they were both deported to the Terezin ghetto. This was the largest deportation from Holland.

Amsterdam Holocaust Encyclopedi

  1. Westerbork, the Nazi transit camp in the north of occupied the Netherlands, is unlike any other camp in WWII. This is a unique story of the lives and fates of over 105,000 Jews who went through Westerbork, on their way to concentration camps in eastern Europe during the Holocaust
  2. The cheapest way to get from Westerbork to Sobibór costs only 381 zł, and the quickest way takes just 12¾ hours. Find the travel option that best suits you
  3. Westerbork became a transit camp in 1941 and the first deportees left on 15 July 1942. The final train left on 13 September 1944, with 279 Jews on board. Among those deported from the camp were.
  4. In Amsterdam, we were so fortunate to have the best tour guides, remember I mentioned the Jewish girls who lived on my grandmother's farm during the war? Now 85 and 80 years old, spending time with them was a huge privilege. On Setting: Amsterdam, Westerbork & a Storybook Castle (Moat Included) / July 5, 2018 by Lena Scholman. Photo credit
  5. ation camps in occupied Poland , primarily to Auschwitz but also to Sobibor
  6. Mirjam managed to hide the letters she wrote in Amsterdam and Westerbork; and those she wrote in Bergen-Belsen she brought with her when she was released as part of an exchange between Dutch Jews and German POWs, and arrived in Eretz Israel on 10 July 1944

Instead of fleeing the Nazis, she helped inmates and

1a Travelling from Westerbork (Netherlands) to Brussels (Belgium). The Thalys high-speed-train is the fastest train connection between the Netherlands and Belgium. The Thalys train runs on the route from Amsterdam via Rotterdam and Antwerp to Brussels The residents of the Secret Annex are betrayed and arrested They are taken to a police station in Amsterdam and eventually to Westerbork transit camp September 3, 1944: The eight prisoners are transported in a sealed cattle car to Auschwitz on the last transport ever to leave Westerbork. At Auschwitz, the men are separated from the women The town of Westerbork is situated in the northeast of the Netherlands in the province of Drenthe, about 130 km (80 miles) north of Amsterdam.In a resolution proposed by the Minister of Home Affairs and approved by the Dutch cabinet on 13 February 1939, it was determined to construct a camp to house the refugees from Germany that live in this country For business owners Every day, we help thousands of travelers plan great vacations. Here are some tips on how to use your Listing Page to attract more travelers to your business - Kamp Westerbork. Review Your Listing Review information on this page and make sure it is accurate. If you have photos, descriptions, contact information, social media handles, etc. you would like to add, please send. 1a Eurail: Travelling from Westerbork (Netherlands) to Cloppenburg (Germany) It is easy to travel by Eurail from the Netherlands to Germany. No reservations required on the direct ICE trains from Amsterdam via Utrecht to Cologne and Frankfurt. Also the direct IC train from Amsterdam to Berlin is free

Westerbork - Amsterdam Forum - Tripadviso

Otto Aufrichtig [Aurich] was born in Vienna on 11 February 1900 and subsequently moved to Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he lived with second wife Alice [Liesel] Frankel, born 22 January 1911 in Prague, Bohemiia. The pair were deported in 1943 from Amsterdam to Kamp Westerbork in the Dutch province of Drente To travel by Eurail from Westerbork to Zierikzee, please read the following information and blog posts. Use our information about train types and the schedule planer tool. Your travel route could be like that. 1 Westerbork (Netherlands) - Zierikzee (Netherlands) 227 k

Westerbork Holocaust Encyclopedi

Kamp Westerbork (Hooghalen) - 2021 All You Need to Know

Holocaust trains - Wikipedi

  1. The Committee for Jewish Refugees (CJV) in Amsterdam was established in April 1933, and disbanded in 1941. It was an offshoot of the Committee for Special Jewish Affairs [] (Dutch: Comité voor Bijzondere Joodsche Belangen - CBJB), which was founded in 1933 by Abraham Asscher and David Cohen.The committees were a response to the tide of refugees who were entering the Netherlands from.
  2. The Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope consists of a linear array of 14 antennas with a diameter of 25 meters arranged on a 2.7 km East-West line. It is located next to the Westerbork concentration camp, using by Nazis in WW2 as a transit camp and nowadays a museum. WESTERBORK, THE NETHERLANDS by Peter Witterholt
  3. ute documentary which I produced in Holland in 1997. This is a very person..
Concentration Camps - ANNE FRANK (1929-1945)

Deportations from The Netherlands http://www

audioguide iOS android whitelabel website Westerbork Luisterpad. The Westerborkpad is a trail that runs from Amsterdam to the former grounds of Concentration Camp Westerbork across 300 kilometers. A trail to reflect on the past. Shoudio built and drives the apps for WesterborkLuisterpad @WesterborkLuisterpad, with about 30 stages consisting of extensive audio interviews, stories and anecdotes. Afstand in een rechte lijn tussen Westerbork (Drenthe) en Amsterdam (Noord-Holland) is 127.27 km, maar de reis afstand is 183 km lange route.. Het duurt 1 uur 42 min te gaan vanaf Westerbork naar Amsterdam.. Routebeschrijving vanaf Westerbork naar Amsterdam After your splendid visit to Westerbork, you can proceed to an important near-by city of Amsterdam. Take a short trip from Westerbork and set some time aside to explore the Amsterdam . Dotted with places like Amsterdam Museum , Jewish Cultural Quarter , The Rembrandt House Museum ; it will definitely be a good idea Deportaiton of Jews from other large Dutch cities and provinces, again sent to Westerbork transit camp May 1943: Remaining Jews in Amsterdam, about 10,000, are rounded up for deportation September 1943 to end of occupation: Remaining Jews in Amsterdam, about 10,000, are rounded up for deportation July 194 Just a thirty minute drive from the Dutch city of Groningen is the former concentration camp of Westerbork. Between 1942 and 1945, the German occupying authorities moved over a hundred thousand Dutch Jews, a few hundred Roma and Sinti and dozens of Dutch resistance fighters to this relatively isolated place. Among them were Anne Frank and her family.  Some stayed for years, most for weeks.

Netherlands Distance Chart (Distance Table): For your quick reference, below is a Distance Chart or Distance Table of distances between some of the major cities in Netherlands. [Note: The distance between cities in Netherlands distance chart below is straight line distance (may be called as flying or air distance) between the two locations in Netherlands calculated based on their latitudes and. A Jewish family at the sports complex on the Olympiaplein in Amsterdam, awaiting deportation to Westerbork Nazi concentration camp in North Holland. The Hunger Winter Of 1944 - 1945. In the summer of 1944 the end of the German occupation seemed like just a matter of time Etty accepted a post within the Dutch Jewish Council in July, 1942. This position exempted her from imprisonment at Westerbork. She was free to remain in Amsterdam, where she lived for a time with. Westerbork is a story few know and fewer actually visit. It's a part of Dutch history which is so sad and so horrific than even Dutch citizens hardly ever go - and, since even fewer international tourists discover Westerbork, even the small museum's exhibits are explained only in Dutch, not even English

AMSTERDAM (NYT NEWS SERVICE).- The footage is part of a compilation known as the Westerbork Film, named after the Nazi transit camp from which Dutch Jews were deported to death camps in occupied Poland and Germany. Shot in 1944, the footage has been used in countless war documentaries, the unknown passengers serving as the public faces of. However, the rise of virtual theatre will give you a unique chance to see my 2010 break-out Amsterdam performance of The Westerbork Serenade! Key City Public Theatre in Port Townsend Washington is hosting . THE ART OF THE SOLO from April 29 to May 22. The Westerbork Serenade runs April 29, May 1, May 7 and May 9 at 7pm Pacific time Catharina was born in 1917 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, to an affluent family in the textile business. She worked as a nurse for the Jewish hospital. In 1941, she married Jacques Frank. The couple went into hiding in Amsterdam but were discovered and transported to Westerbork transit camp. Catharina, six months pregnant when she reached the. View of the road leading to the Westerbork transit camp. The sign reads Kamp Grenze (camp border). Date Circa 1939 Frankfort on the Odor, Berlin, Hanover, and finally back to Amsterdam. His father, Max, had survived the war, but his sisters Meta and Hilda had not. Meta was killed in Auschwitz on September 3, 1942, and Hilda died on. Walking the path of 102,000. My visit to Kamp Westerbork. It's difficult to put into words the effect of a visit to Kamp Westerbork. To begin with, getting there is not easy unless you are driving a car. Using the train, one travels from Amsterdam to Assen (e48) then from Assen to Hooghallen using the #22 bus (e10)

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Etty Hillesum ~ The railroad from Amsterdam to Auschwitz

Johan van Hulst, Who Helped Save 600 Children From the

The occupants of the Secret Annex are taken by train from Amsterdam Central Station to the Westerbork transit camp. Sep. 2, 1944: The occupants of the Secret Annex are assigned to a transport from Westerbork transit camp to Auschwitz extermination camp. May 2, 1945: German units surrender to Soviet forces in Berlin. Apr. 30, 194 A map of the Westerbork transit camp. Until July 1942, Westerbork was a refugee camp for Jews who had moved illegally to the Netherlands. After the Nazi conquest of Holland, it was expanded it into a transit camp, where it operated until April 1944. USHMM (08049), courtesy of Toni Heller

Ontdek de vele mogelijkheden van Drenthe in Noord-Nederland

Amsterdam, Holland. General. A vibrant Jewish community existed in Amsterdam from the early 1600's. By 1930, the Jewish population was about 65,000. Hitler's rise to power in 1933 caused an influx of German Jews. By 1941, the Jewish population had risen to to over 80,000. In early 1941, a Jewish Council (Joodsche Raad) was formed Directed by Robert Dornhelm. With Ben Kingsley, Hannah Taylor Gordon, Tatjana Blacher, Brenda Blethyn. The life of Anne Frank and her family from the winter 1943-1944 to end of WWII: their arrest in Amsterdam; deportation to Westerbork, Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen; return of Anne's father who discovers her diary 15-year-old Jewish diarist Anne Frank and her family are captured hiding in an Amsterdam warehouse. The Franks had taken shelter there in 1942 out of fear of deportation to a Nazi concentration camp

Camp Westerbork - Holland

Later in 1942 she briefly returned to Amsterdam while her boyfriend Julius Spier was dying. In November 1942 she returned to Westerbork. The book Letters from Westerbork, published in 1982 and in English translation in 1986, contains correspondence and some diaries from this time frame that document her impressions of Westerbork Westerbork, whose inhabitants included Anne Frank before she was moved to Auschwitz, was established by the Dutch government in 1939 as a refugee camp for Jews fleeing occupied Europe but it was. Westerbork A three-hour train journey from Amsterdam into the remote countryside of north-east Holland (and an overnight in the town of Emmen) brought me to the site of Westerbork https://kampwesterbork.nl/en This was the Nazi transit camp where the Frank family were first imprisoned, before their deportation to Auschwitz

The betrayal of Anne Frank and her Family

History of the Jews in the Netherlands - Wikipedi

Westerbork was a transit camp for Jews who were being deported from the Netherlands during World War II to killing centers in Poland. The camp was initially established in October 1939 by the Dutch government to house Jewish refugees who had entered the country illegally. Coenraad Rood was born on August 12, 1917 in Amsterdam Holland to a. Kamp Westerbork Hotels Flights to Hooghalen Car Rentals in Kamp Westerbork Hooghalen Vacation Packages COVID-19 alert: Travel requirements are changing rapidly, including need for pre-travel COVID-19 testing and quarantine on arrival Westerbork, the Nazi transit camp in the north of occupied the Netherlands, is unlike any other camp in WWII. This is a unique story of the lives and fates of over 105,000 Jews who went through Westerbork, on their way to concentration camps in eastern Europe during the Holocaust.The camp was overseen by Albert Gemmeker, a commander who duped thousands into boarding the trains to take them to.

A walk from the Westerbork Nazi transit camp to Groningen as part of the 'night of the refugee' fundraising activities has been cancelled after the organisers faced death threats and intimidation. The decision to scrap the walk from Camp Westerbork, which was originally built to house Jewish refugees and was later used as an assembly point for Jews who were being sent to the death camps. Westerbork; COVID-19 alert: Travel requirements are changing rapidly, including need for pre-travel COVID-19 testing and quarantine on arrival. Check restrictions for your trip. Opens in new tab or window Dismiss close travel advisory. Exclusive deals on vacations and trips to Westerbork Etty Hillesum's diary, which she kept between 1941 and 1943, is the only extant source about her. Explicit in both its expression of sexuality and profession of faith, Hillesum's diary reflects a mature, nonconformist Dutch woman attempting to grapple with the changing landscape of her internal and external worlds

Een der laatste transporten naar Westerbork 6 februai 1945. We can read here that most people of this transport were imprisoned in Amsterdam as they were betrayed and had been put on transport at the Amsterdamse Schouwburg to the Westerbork camp. This was one of the very last transports to Westerbork Amsterdam Holocaust memorial to name Jews and Roma deported to Nazi camps Architect Daniel Libeskind to design memorial Westerbork was liberated by Canadian soldiers on April 12th, 1945 Ephraim Izaäk Levie (EIL) Rosenbaum and Johanna Frederika Suzanna Zion (Jo) were married in 1940, and lived in Amsterdam. Ephraim was a pharmacist and Johanna - a housewife. In August 1941, their daughter Betty was born, followed by their son Maxje in January 1943. Johanna had five siblings - Julius, Solomon, Zadok, Wilhelmina and Frieda The Germans occupied Amsterdam in May 1940. In July 1942, German authorities and their Dutch collaborators began to concentrate Jews from throughout the Netherlands at Westerbork, a transit camp near the Dutch town of Assen, not far from the German border

Westerbork transit camp - Wikipedi

16 © Copyright 2017, www.sparklebox.co.uk The first 1,500 copies of Anne's diary are published in Amsterdam. 1947 Summer. Title: Florence Nightingale timeline. Anne Frank (born Annelies Marie Frank; June 12, 1929-March 1945) was a Jewish teenager who spent two years hiding in a Secret Annex in Nazi-occupied Amsterdam during World War II.While she died in the Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp at age 15, her father survived and found and published Anne's diary In order to realize such an application iC-ACCESS project leader Prof. dr. R. van der Laarse contracted two laboratories specialized consecutively in 3D visualisation technologies and spatial information to cooperate on its development, the 4D Research Lab (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands) and the SPINlab (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. The plan had in many ways already been put into action. The concentration camps of Westerbork and Vugt were set up in the north and south, respectively, and beginning in January of 1942, after mass roundups, Jews were no longer allowed to live anywhere in the Netherlands but Amsterdam or the two camps On August 4, 1944, the Secret Annex was raided by German police. Frank, her family, the van Pels family and Pfeffer were shortly afterward deported to the Westerbork transit camp in the northern.

Private tour: Follow Anne Frank to Camp Westerbork 2021

Holocaust Memorial Day Nederland, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 555 likes · 18 were here. Holocaust Memorial Day heeft tot doel jongeren tussen de 15 en 25 jaar leren over de Holocaust en andere genociden... On November 16, 1942, Chelly, 15, Louis, 13, and their parents Meijer and Sophia left Arnhem and went into hiding after the Dutch police warned them of a raid. Meijer and Sophia hid in Amsterdam while Chelly and Louis moved around to different locations. In summer or fall 1943, Chelly went to Amsterdam to live with her parents The Diary of Anne Frank is the first, and sometimes only, exposure many people have to the history of the Holocaust. Meticulously handwritten during her two years in hiding, Anne's diary remains one of the most widely read works of nonfiction in the world. Anne has become a symbol for the lost promise of the more than one million Jewish. Thank you for supporting our work. We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia