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Types of arson crimes

Arson - Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program — FB

The FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program defines arson as any willful or malicious burning or attempting to burn, with or without intent to defraud, a dwelling house, public building, motor.. Examining Four Types of Arson Under Illinois Criminal Law From a general standpoint, arson is an Illinois crime that involves the use of fire or explosives to harm or injure. More specifically, Illinois law provides for several different types of arson crimes Types of Arson Crimes in Minnesota Minnesota Arson Defense Attorney. Fires can occur for many reasons. Most of the time, it happens due to accidents. If you leave candles out, they can catch things on fire. Same if you leave electric blankets out. Electrical problems also cause a lot of fires Crime concealment Fires are set for the purpose of covering up a murder or burglary or to eliminate evidence left at a crime scene. Other examples include fires set to destroy business records to conceal cases of embezzlement and the many cases of auto theft arson where the fire is set to destroy evidence distinguishing between different types of arson and arsonist. The contradictions are apparent in the variety of emphases that are given to characterize arson. For example, as a crime it has been regarded both as a category of property offences (Hill, Langevin, Paitich, Handy, Russon & Wilkinson, 1982)

Three Different Types of Arson Crimes Under Illinois Law

  1. of the four basic types of incendiary fires and the evidence found in each, namely: 1. Revenge. 2. Fraud. 3. Concealment of other crimes. When we speak of physical evidence, we are referring to specific objects, concrete things; physical, tangible, objective evidences of arson-the physical evidence of a crime
  2. California arson laws are particularly strict because the state has such a problem with massive fires. As a result, charges for arson will vary based on intent and the severity of damage. Most fires that were started recklessly rather than intentionally are misdemeanors, but the rest are felonies
  3. The classifications are: serial arson, spree arson and mass arson. Serial arson is as many as three fires set at different locations and each fire has a cooling off period between the sets. Spree..

This handbook is intended as a guide to recommended practices for the collection and preservation of evidence at fire/arson scenes. [1] Follow Agency Policies! Actions taken following these guides should be performed in accordance with department policies and procedures and federal and state laws. Jurisdictional, logistical or legal conditions may preclude the use of particular procedures. There are many types of arson crimes, including setting fire to one's property with fraudulent intent--like when someone burns their house to collect insurance money. While the majority of arson crimes involve damage to buildings, arson can also be committed by a person who sets fire to forest land or a boat Types Of Arson. Working With A Criminal Defense Lawyer. Arson Crimes. Arson is if a person knowingly or accidentally, by means of fire or explosive, damage any building or property with the intention to injure or defraud an insurer of the property or the owner of the property Although the penalties are stiff, arson is a frequently committed crime. Some facts and statistics concerning arson include: Arson involving buildings accounts for over 45 percent of arson offenses. Arson involving other types of property accounts for over 29 percent of arson offenses All crime scenes are documented and processed with the same types of procedures, but arson investigation offers challenges that are more specialized. Not only are fire scenes extremely difficult to read for what happened and why, but by the time the fire investigator arrives much of the scene has been trampled and altered by fire fighters.

Types of Arson Crimes in Minnesota The Law Office of

  1. Arson is when someone deliberately sets fire to someone else's property to damage it or to injure people. The maximum penalty for anyone found guilty of arson is imprisonment for life. This is because of the exceptional dangers involved. Arson is a serious crime and should be reported to the police at the earliest opportunity, even if no one.
  2. The Arson Capitals of the United States Property crimes are the most common crimes in the United States. One such property crime is arson — the intentional, malicious burning of property. There are many reasons why someone might commit arson
  3. Arson is defined as the willful and malicious burning or charring of property. There are many types of arson crimes, including setting fire to one's property with fraudulent intent--such as to collect insurance money. Depending upon the type of arson committed, the punishment can vary significantly
  4. Arson is a crime of willfully and maliciously setting fire to or charring property. Though the act typically involves buildings, the term arson can also refer to the intentional burning of other things, such as motor vehicles, watercraft, or forests. The crime is typically classified as a felony, with instances involving a greater degree of risk to human life or property carrying a stricter.
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Arson motives - FEM

The FBI keeps statistics on the following four types of property crime: Larceny-theft: The most common type of property crime, constituting 72.5% of all property crimes in 2018, larceny-theft is the unlawful removal of property. This includes shoplifting, pickpocketing, bicycle theft, and attempts at such offenses, which all come without. For instance, some states break down arson into two types: primary fires and secondary fires. Primary fires take place in inhabited buildings, such as homes, active businesses, or vehicles. Primary fires may also consist of acts of arson that result in injuries Arson in the third degree is a Class C felony with a maximum sentence of 15 years and a minimum of one year in jail. A common example of third-degree arson in New York would be setting a fire for insurance fraud. Arson in the second degree is a Class B felony with a prison sentence of five to 25 years. The distinction made for this crime is.

  1. Traditionally, arson was a crime that prohibited burning someone else's home, dwelling, or nearby property. Its purpose was to protect people from having their property burned while they were still inside. Today, modern arson laws have expanded the traditional definition and now cover burning any type of property
  2. There are different tiers and degrees of severity that apply to arson crimes. For example, a person who starts a fire or explosion that damages property as the result of manufacturing an illicit drug may be charged with a state jail felony
  3. al Justice System. Use these resources to learn more facts about crime and the cri
  4. Most states divide arson crimes into degrees of severity, depending on factors such as risk of injury or type of property burned. Misdemeanor arson convictions can result in jail time and thousands of dollars in fines, while a conviction for felony arson can lead to a lengthy prison sentence and a fine in excess of $10,000. To learn about the.
  5. A crime is defined as any act that is contrary to legal code or laws. There are many different types of crimes, from crimes against persons to victimless crimes and violent crimes to white collar crimes. The study of crime and deviance is a large subfield within sociology, with much attention paid to who commits which types of crimes and why
  6. al laws have designated the crime of arson as one type of property crime that is so harmful as to constitute a violent crime. Arson involves the intentional burning of the building of another, often a personal home or property

Physical Evidence in Arson Case

By Number of Crimes, Clearances, Uninhabited Structures, and Est. Value of Prop. Damage Statewide Alameda Alpine Amador Butte Table 13 - Arson Crimes, Type of Property | State of California - Department of Justice - Office of the Attorney Genera For this reason, few crimes are more terrifying than arson. Unfortunately, identifying an arsonist and bringing them to justice for their crimes is not always an easy task. It's difficult enough to conclusively determine that a fire was an act of arson, to say nothing of actually finding the perpetrator or proving their guilt Arson is a relatively common crime against property in Texas. When an individual is convicted of arson, experts say the motivation can range from terrorism to insurance fraud.. The legal definition of arson involves malicious destruction or damage to a building, vehicle, inhabited structure, vessel or any other form of real property by means of explosive device or fire

Definition of Serial Arson. A Serial Arsonist is someone who habitually and compulsively sets fires. Under U.S. Law, arson is defined as the malicious burning of the dwelling of another, though the actual crime may entail the burning of any structure or object. It has been noted that many serial arsonists are actually frustrated or. Property crime in the United States, which consists of larceny, burglary, motor vehicle theft, and arson, is predominantly committed by white people. Larceny-Theft . Larceny-theft is a type of property crime, and it was the most frequently committed type of property crime in the United States in 2019 First, Second and Fifth degrees listed below for RI and equivalent Massachusetts Laws. In Rhode Island, First Degree Arson is when the building or property has been occupied for any use within the six (6) months prior to the crime. Rhode Island General Laws § 11-2-2 Arson- First Degree Degree- Any person who knowingly causes, procures, aids. Crimes like arson and vandalism come under the former category. Vandalism is the willful destruction of or damage to another person's property; whereas, arson is the deliberate and malicious burning of structures or wild land areas. Therefore, to constitute the offense of arson, the accused must intend to burn a building or other structure.

The crime of arson is an extraordinarily complex one by its definition alone. Its complexity makes many difficulties to the student. It also These degrees are wholly dependent upon the type and use of the structure or property burned, degree of involvement of participants, and often the time of day in which the crime is committed.'. Arson investigations, also known as fire investigations, is the investigation and analysis of fire-related incidents. Detectives use a variety of forensic analysis methods, crime scene investigation techniques, and chemical analysis to evaluate a fire scene. After firefighters or firemen extinguish a fire, a fire investigation seeks to. Arson is the third leading cause of wildfires in Georgia and GFC forestry investigators have full arrest and enforcement authority in the state. They are specially trained to conduct wildland fire investigations and other forestry related crimes. An average of 700 arson fires, which burn approximately 9,000 acres, are recorded in Georgia annually PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1613 AMENDING THE LAW ON ARSON WHEREAS, findings of the police and intelligence agencies of the government reveal that fires and other crimes involving destruction in Metro Manila and other urban centers in the country are being perpetuated by criminal syndicates, some of which have foreign connections; WHEREAS, the current law o

The crime of arson is commonly understood as the intentional burning of another person's property. The nuances of the arson definition vary depending upon different state laws and the federal statute, but the malicious burning of another person's structure is the basic starting point arson (to an extent), vandalism, burglary, theft, shoplifting public order crimes public drunkness, prostitution, disorderly conduct, drug crimes, other alcohol-related crimes Arson Penalties. A person who is charged with arson will face a Class 2 felony. The sentence and fine range depends on the different types of arson and the overall damage to property. The jail term for a crime relating to arson could range from 3- to 7-years or more and fines up to $25,000 and four years of probation Men criminal taking the best benefits by completing the mission by the help of female criminal. 6. Types of Female crimeof Female crime •Murder •Manslaughter •Rape •Arson •Terrorism •Domestic violence •Gang violence •Kidnapping •Robbery •Murder •Manslaughter •Rape •Arson •Terrorism •Domestic violence •Gang. Arson is the most expensive crime in America, costing more than $2 billion a year in property loss. The federal Anti-Arson Act of 1982 established arson as a violent crime. Arson claims over 700.

ARSON CRIMES, 2011 Type of Property by Jurisdiction Del Norte County. Jurisdiction. TOTAL 13 7. 4 2. Sheriff's Department 10 6. 3 1. Unincorporated 10 6. 3 1. Placerville 2. 0. 1 1. South Lake Tahoe 1 1. 0 0. Union Pacific Railroad 0 0. 0 0. CA Highway Patrol 0 0. 0 0. Note: Property type is determined by the point of origin of a fire Arson (criminal damage by fire) Criminal Damage Act 1971, s.1(1) and (3) Effective from: 01 October 2019. This is a Schedule 19 offence for the purposes of sections 274 and 285 (required life sentence for offence carrying life sentence) of the Sentencing Code. Previous convictions of a type different from the current offence. Arson is a crime that involves someone intentionally burning and damaging property. Legislatures consider it a serious crime because of the devastation fires can cause. What Is Arson? While states define the offense somewhat differently, arson is generally the intentional and malicious act of burning or setting fire to another person's property Thus, what distinguishes arson in the first degree from arson in the second degree is not the manner or means by which the crime was committed or the extent of damage; the distinction lies in the type of property affected

California Arson Laws: Types of Crimes and Penalties

Arson Investigation: The Six Motives for Firesetting

Penalties. Arson is a felony in Nevada. The prison sentence and fine amount depend on the degree. 1st-degree: 2 - 15 years and up to $15,000. 2nd-degree: 1 - 10 years and up to $10,000. 3rd-degree: 1 - 4 years and up to $5,000. 4th-degree: 1 - 4 years and up to $5,000 (plus a possible additional $5,000 fine) The court may also order. Property Crime. As noted earlier, the major property crimes are burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, and arson. These crimes are quite common in the United States and other nations and, as Table 8.1 Number of Crimes: Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), 2010 indicated, millions occur annually in this country Arson statutes generally classify arson as a felony offense, because of the potential types of serious injury or even death that may result from the act of arson. A felony is a crime that is considered to be more serious in nature, and is generally punishable by more than one year of imprisonment in a federal facility 6 types of arson -profit motivated arson -crime concealment arson - sabatoge arson-excitement arson. vandalism. willfully to maliciously destroy, injure, disfigure, or deface any public or private property, real or personal, without consent of the owner or person having custody or controlled by cutting breaking etc

The Arson crime in the state of Texas makes starting a fire or causing an explosion illegal under certain dangerous circumstances.Arson includes recklessly starting a fire that damages people or property, with intent to damage property or in the process of manufacturing illegal drugs. Learn more detailed information about the Arson offense below Arson is when someone deliberately sets fire to someone else's property to damage it or to injure people. The maximum penalty for anyone found guilty of arson is imprisonment for life. This is because of the exceptional danger involved - victims may lose all their property, be made homeless, injured, or suffer a very painful death Types of Arson in Minnesota. Minnesota divides arson crimes into five degrees: arson in the fifth degree is the least serious of the offenses and first-degree arson is the most severe charge. Additionally, Minnesota recognizes arson of wildlife as a separate offense Legal experts often divide crimes into different categories. For example, violent crimes may be considered one group of crimes, such as sexual assault and murder. Another set of crimes is property crimes. These crimes often involve theft, burglary and even arson. White collar crimes comprise another set of crimes

A Guide for Investigating Fire and Arson National

tions because they are the crimes most likely to be reported and most likely to occur with sufficient frequency to provide an ade­ quate basis for comparison. Arson was not originally part of the crime reporting process. Arson became the eighth Index crime as the result of a limited Congressional mandate in October 1978 Arson in Texas Is a Serious Crime. Texas Penal Code says that someone in Texas commits arson by starting a fire (or causing an explosion) with the intent to damage or destroy whatever's being set ablaze. Statistics show the most common types of arson include vehicle, residential, and commercial fires. The most common motives are revenge and.

This type is defined as the illegal or illicit destruction of property. Common examples include vandalism and arson. Destructive property crime usually begets other criminal charges. For example, an individual who sets another person's property on fire may be guilty of arson as well as the attempted murder (violent property crime) Arson can be a notoriously difficult crime to prove, and our attorneys will aggressively fight to rebut, or contradict, the evidence gathered by the police or insurance investigator. Our lawyers are extremely skilled in achieving a favorable outcome, especially if the crime resulted in no injuries or deaths and the property damage was fairly minor Arson is a generic term used for the setting of a deliberate, malicious fire to damage property, generally that of another person ( Dempsey, 1996; Bennett & Hess, 2001 ). With arson for fraud, however, the target is usually the property of the arsonist, who is seeking to gain an advantage, usually from an insurance policy 10 Evidence Of Arson Cameron Todd Willingham was convicted of arson in 1992 after an investigation into the fire that killed his three young daughters. On December 23, 1991, Willingham's wife, Stacy, left to buy last-minute Christmas presents while he and the girls slept

(June 30, 2021 / JNS) A kosher bakery in Montreal was the target of attempted arson in the predawn hours Monday, making the second such incident against a kosher establishment in the city in recent weeks.. According to news reports, Montreal police responded to an alarm at the Boulangerie and found a window broken and a heat source inside Arson is a serious felony crime and is punishable by imprisonment and associated fines. You can help prevent this type of crime by reporting suspicious activity to the police immediately by calling 9-1-1 Crimes Against Property Arson Arson is the willful or malicious burning or attempting to burn, with or without intent to defraud, a house, public building, motor vehicle or aircraft, personal property of another, etc. Briber Some types of conduct are illegal under both state and federal law. Arson is an example of one of those types of conduct. There are certain types of arson offenses that are illegal under both federal law and state law. If you commit arson in violation of federal law, it is not up to you where you will be prosecuted Clery Act crime unless it's motivated by bias (i.e., a hate crime) 7. Arson. Arson is any willful or malicious burning or attempt to burn, with or without intent to defraud, a dwelling house, public building, motor vehicle or aircraft, personal property of another, etc. Classify as Arson

Crimes considered a felony can include: aggravated assault and/or battery, arson, burglary, domestic violence, drug-related crimes, DUI, fraud, kidnapping, manslaughter, murder, rape, robbery, theft and vandalism. A person convicted in court of a felony becomes labeled a felon. Felonies have several differences in comparison to misdemeanors. Statutes: Maryland Code, Criminal Law § 6-101, et seq. Classification of Arson and Malicious Burning Offenses: 1st Degree Arson: To willfully and maliciously set fire to or burn a dwelling or a structure in or on which an individual who is not a participant is present. 2nd Degree Arson: To willfully and maliciously set fire to or burn a structure that belongs to the person or to another 6.4 Location of arson offences and types or property burnt Of the 4,480 arson offences that were recorded in the year ending 30 September 2016, 29.5 per cent (n=1,323) took place at a residential location, 56.1 per cent (n=2,515) were recorded at a community location, and 10.3 per cent (n=462) at an other location, with the remaining 4.0 per.

7 Different Types of CrimesCriminology and crime notes

Arson. Arson is the criminal setting of a fire to commit at least vandalism and at worst murder or even mass murder. Arson is difficult to investigate for three main reasons: The arsonist can plan out the arson well in advance and bring all the tools needed to commit the act with him/her As expressed, arson is the willful and malicious burning of property involving many types of crimes including including setting fire to one's property with intent or a motive. An example would be if a person decided to burn even their own house to collect insurance money Also known as criminal investigators, police detectives investigate crimes including robberies, arson, homicides and property crimes. As a police detective, you can specialize in one of these specific types of crime. Police detectives gather evidence, follow leads, interview witnesses and the victims of the crime, write reports and take notes.

Arson - Crimes Against PropertyArson - Cornett Law Office

Arson - FindLa

The crime that the individual is intending to commit may be a property crime like arson or theft or a violent crime like assault or rape. Statute 810.02 lays out the different ways individuals may be charged with burglary and the varying severity of the charges based on the amount burglarized and whether other individuals were present. Arson. Arson is a type of property crime that is considered either a Class C or Class A felony. The action itself is the intentional burning of any type of structure, whether that be building, land, or forest. If the crime results in any bodily injury, then it is considered Class A felony. Another difference between the two classes is whether.

What Is Arson And Aggravated Arson Criminal Charges

Mental disorders are related to all types of crimes but especially to arson, battery and homicidal attempts or threats, with a court finding of diminished accountability providing some validation for perceived links between the disorder and crime in this study. Implications for practice Fire and arson investigators examine the physical attributes of a fire scene and identify and collect physical evidence from the scene. This evidence is then analyzed to help determine if the cause of the fire was accidental or deliberate. During the scene examination, investigators may find evidence such as accelerants, tampered utilities, and specific burn patterns, which may indicate. Determining Arson Motives. I. We need to determine the motive for an arson in order to narrow the focus of the investigation and try to identify the offender. Observation of offender behavior at the arson scene can identify the motivation for the crime

Arson - Definition, Elements, Degrees and Example

Nationally, about 20% of arson cases are resolved in court — the lowest rate of all major crimes. Almost all misdemeanor charges dismissed More than 600 people were cited or arrested for misdemeanors in the week following Floyd's murder, according to records from the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul Juvenile courts try to stay away from these offenses as they are considered minor offenses. Property Crimes: Include burglary, larceny, theft, and arson. Over a quarter of juveniles arrested for property crimes where under the age of eighteen. Boys make up over sixty percent of those juveniles arrested

Arson is a generic term used for the setting of a deliberate, malicious fire to damage property, generally that of another person (Dempsey, 1996; Bennett & Hess, 2001).With arson for fraud, however, the target is usually the property of the arsonist, who is seeking to gain an advantage, usually from an insurance policy Crime - Crime - Classification of crimes: Most legal systems divide crimes into categories for various purposes connected with the procedures of the courts, such as assigning different kinds of court to different kinds of offense. Common law originally divided crimes into two categories: felonies—the graver crimes, generally punishable by death and the forfeiture of the perpetrator's land. Arson is the term for a crime of intentionally or maliciously setting a fire to structures, vegetative areas, or areas of forests. It is different in scope and legislation from any natural causes of fire, and usually describes the crime of one setting a fire to property to collect insurance compensation (Ford, 2005) Orr is serving life plus 20 years for arson and the four murders. 3. Raymond Lee Oyler. Number of Fires: 24. People Killed: Five. Cost: The fire destroyed over 40,000 acres, amounting to more than. This is a less severe property crime, but shouldn't be taken lightly. If you've been charged with shoplifting, you need to contact San Antonio criminal defense lawyers. Arson. This is the burning of any type of property, whether a building or piece of land

This type of assault usually is accompanied by the use of a weapon or by means likely to produce death or great bodily harm. ARSON. Any willful or malicious burning or attempt to burn, with or without intent to defraud, a dwelling house, public building, motor vehicle or aircraft, personal property of another, etc. A Hate Crime is a. 609.561 ARSON IN THE FIRST DEGREE. §. Subdivision 1. First degree; dwelling. Whoever unlawfully by means of fire or explosives, intentionally destroys or damages any building that is used as a dwelling at the time the act is committed, whether the inhabitant is present therein at the time of the act or not, or any building appurtenant to or. Types of crime. There are lots of different types of crime, and people will react to crime differently. If you've been affected by crime and need support or information, Arson is when someone deliberately sets fire to someone else's property to damage it or to injure people We've included a guide to seven of the most common types of property crimes below. Arson. You can be charged with arson for intentionally starting a fire or using explosives to destroy property, whether for insurance reasons or out of maliciousness. Typically, Colorado arson crimes involve residential property, but you can also commit larceny.

Arson is a unique crime in that evidence at the scene can be destroyed; however, a systematic investigation may yield sufficient evidence to determine the cause. It is therefore important that every fire scene is treated as a potential arson crime until proof of natural or accidental cause has been established Types of hate crime Hate crime can take many forms including: Physical attacks - such as physical assault, damage to property, offensive graffiti, neighbour disputes and arson; Threat of attack - including offensive letters, abusive or obscene telephone calls, groups hanging around to intimidate and unfounded, malicious complaints; Verbal abuse or insults - offensive leaflets and posters.

The practice of criminal psychological profiling is frequently cited as being applicable to serial arson crimes. Despite this claim, there does not appear to be any empirical research that examines serial arson offence behaviors in the context of profiling. This study seeks to develop an empirical m Many types of crime exist. Criminologists commonly group crimes into several major categories: (1) violent crime; (2) property crime; (3) white-collar crime; (4) organized crime; and (5) consensual or victimless crime. Within each category, many more specific crimes exist. For example, violent crime includes homicide, aggravated and simple. The state arson and burning laws are listed together and classified as crimes against property. If you or someone you know has been charged with this offense do not be fooled into thinking that this is not a serious charge just because it is a crime against property. In the first degree, arson is one of the most serious crimes on the books

English Exercises: Crimes

Arson with intent to defraud is committed when a person, by means of fire, damages any property other than a building with the intent to defraud an insurer of that property. A conviction for this offense is a Class H felony punishable by up to $10,000 fines and/or a maximum of 6 years in prison There are different types of arson crimes all charged under California penal code section 451. The punishments for arson in California vary tremendously depending on what exactly you are charged with.. A conviction for arson of a structure or forest land, charged under California Penal Code Section 451(c) is a felony punishable by imprisonment in the state prison for two, four or six years This Snapshot excludes the offence of arson causing death, which is defined in section 197A of the Crimes Act 1958 (Vic). Arson causing death is a Category 2 offence under the Sentencing Act 1991 (Vic) s 3(e) (definition of Category 2 offence) and carries a maximum penalty of 25 years' imprisonment. 4. Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) s 197(6)

Different types of crimes - презентация онлайнAbout the Major Crimes UnitThe most dangerous states in America

Back to Types of Violent Crimes. Violent Crime Type 9: Arson in Violation of Subdivision (a) or (b) of Section 451. In order to be found guilty of arson in California under Penal Code 451, the prosecution needs to prove that you: Willfully and maliciously set fire to, burn, or cause to be burned any structure, forest, land, or property; O Under California law, arson is defined as the willful and malicious burning of property. While there are several types of arson crimes defined under California state law, many of them entail allegations of severe property damage, injuries, and loss of life. Arson is often charged as a felony crime in California, which means the penalties are. There are so many different types of crime. In the future weeks we will get into property crimes and interpersonal crimes. For the purpose of this assignment consider the wide variety of crimes that could be committed against you: theft, robbery (theft + violence), physical assault, sexual assault, arson to your property, damage to your property, menacing/ threats, burglary, fraud Summary of Violent Crimes in Nevada Arson. Arson is an intentional burning of a structure, vehicle, or agricultural product that is difficult to prove. Learn more about the possibility of reducing the charges for a Nevada arson prosecution with an experienced Las Vegas arson defense lawyer, defenses to arson, and sentencing Arson Defense In ChicagoChicago Arson Lawyer. Arson is one of the more serious charges you can face in Chicago. If charged, it is important that you immediately contact a Chicago criminal defense lawyer.A charge of arson in Chicago is an extremely serious charge that carries with it severe penalties upon a conviction