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Fungal diseases in Aquaculture

Icthyophonus disease is caused by the fungus, Icthyophonus hoferi. It grows in fresh and saltwater, in wild and cultured fish, but is restricted to cool temperatures (36° to 68°F). The disease is spread by fungal cysts which are released in the feces and by cannibalism of infected fish an increase in fungal infections in an otherwise healthy fish population. Most fungal infections only attack the external tissues and only few fungal infections that will infect the internal organs of fish. Possibility of fungal infections: 1. Poor quality of water. 2. Poor hygiene. 3. Fish that are injured have other diseases. 4 Fungi and fungal-like organ-isms (straminipilous organisms) occur in most waters. They are either saprobes that colonize decaying organic matter, or parasites, which attack a great variety of aquatic organisms leading to disease outbreaks. Among the parasitic species, many are known to be important causative agents of aquatic animal diseases Another true pigmented fungus, Veronaea botryosa, has been identified and described as the cause of a phaeohyphomycosis in aquacultured white sturgeon and Siberian sturgeon

Aquaculture Health Management: Fungal Diseases of Fish

Cotton-wool disease mostly affects freshwater and brackish water fish. It is caused by the fungi of the genus Saprolegnia, which is essentially a water mould. When your pet fish contracts this fungal disease, you would see white or grey patches on their skin, especially around their gills. The patches usually have a fluffy appearance Many fungi cause diseases thatcan infect and kill channel catfisheggs, fry, fingerlings and adults.Most fungal infections are causedby water molds of the familySaprolegniaceae, so fungal dis-eases in catfish are commonlycalled saprolegniasis. Within theSaprolegniaceae family Continued research in basic mycology is still an essential resource for fish pathologists in diagnosing diseases caused by fungi. Although fungi reportedly affect very few species, fungal diseases, if not properly controlled or prevented, can still pose a threat to the aquaculture industry Fungal Diseases on Fishes 1. FUNGAL DISEASES Reported by: JULY B. ARIÑEZ 2. Fungi • Heterotrophic straminipilous organisms • Eukaryotic • Can be unicellular or multicellular • Cell walls made of chitin • Contain no chlorophyll • Filamentous • Either be saprobes or parasite Food can also be a source of disease. Frozen and live foods can transmit bacteria, parasites, viruses, and fungi. In ad-dition, feeds that have been improperly stored can contain pathogenic bacteria or mycotoxins, dangerous chemicals produced by the growth of certain types of fungi in the feed (see UF/IFAS Fact Sheet FA-95, Molds in Fish Feeds and Aflatoxicosis). Improperly stored feeds also have reduced nutritional value, due to degradation of micronutrient

Fungal diseases - Health Management in Aquacultur

Diseases are the largest cause of economic losses in aquaculture. At least ten percent of all hatched salmon in the aquaculture industry succumb to zoosporic diseases. On Scottish salmon farms.. Consultation with an aquaculture or fish health specialist is recommended if you suspect a bacterial or viral disease is killing your fish. Fungal diseases are the fourth type of infectious disease. Fungal spores are common in the aquatic environment, but do not usually cause disease in healthy fish Black gill disease is associated with protozoa Zoothamnium, Epistylis, Vorticella together with Fusarium fungus and bacteria. Gregarine disease is caused by annelid worm Nematopsis spp. And the causative agent of cottomn shrimp is Agmasoma sp Characterization of this infection shows that a widely distributed fungus can represent a potential hazard to sponge aquaculture industries and how, especially in stressed or compromised marine environments, this fungus could represent a fatal opportunistic pathogen Fungal diseases constitute the second most important source of losses, especially in the culture of crustaceans and salmon. External protozoan parasites are responsible for the loss of large numbers of fry and fingerling fin fishes and are a cause of epizootics among young shellfish

Keywords: Aquaculture, sea cucumber, disease, bacteria, fungus, parasite. Introduction. Sea cucumbers belong to the phylum Echinodermata, class Holothuroidea. There are about 1 200 holothurians in the world (McElroy, 1990) and 134 species identified in China, among which about 20 species have commercial value for human consumption (Chen, 2003) Purdue Landscape Report: While fungi are responsible for many of our foliar disease problems, different fungal pathogens present as problems throughout the country, depending upon the host plant grown and the environmental conditions. This is a brief overview of several common types of fungal leaf diseases that occur in Indiana and throughout North America (and Europe)

In aquaculture (shrimp, mollusk, and fish farming), particularly in intensive systems, infectious diseases are always a hazard and can cause significant stock losses and problems with animal welfare. Increasing occurrence of bacterial and fungal diseases whose treatment requires the intensive use of antimicrobials have become common The major disease problems that occur in aquaculture ponds are parasitic, fungal, and bacterial in origin. Important disease problems that generally encounters are argulosis, LIRNEasia, protozoan diseases caused by Trichodina, Costia, Ichthyobodo, Myxosporidean diseases, gill flukes such as Dactylogyrus, and Gyrodactylus; fungal diseases such as saprolegeniasis, branchiomycosis, Epizootic. Vet Clin Exot Anim 6 (2003) 377-400 Fungal diseases of fish Roy P.E. Yanong, VMD Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory, Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Florida, 1408 24th Street Southeast, Ruskin, FL 33570, USA Fungal infections in fish generally are considered secondary to some. Vaccination and immunisation: Vaccinating fish against viral or bacterial diseases is a common practice in aquaculture. No vaccines against fungal-like diseases currently exist, but this could be.

In aquaculture practice, fungal polysaccharides are prebiotic substance which is widely accepted as a nutritional component for regulating growth and health condition. The current review summarizes and discusses the potential uses of fungal polysaccharides on growth performance, immune response and diseases resistance of various fish and shrimp. Saprolegniasis, also known as winter fungus, is a disease caused by fungi usually in the genus Saprolegnia. Found in freshwater fish and fish eggs, saprolegniasis is a secondary infection typically seen when water temperatures dip below 59°F and then begin to increase in the early spring. A fish suffering from saprolegniasis will exhibit. The major disease problems that occurs in aquaculture ponds are parasitic, fungal, and bacterial in origin. Important disease problems that generally encounters are argulosis, lerneasis, protozoan diseases caused by Trichodina, Costia, Ichthyobodo, Myxosporidean diseases, gill flukes such as Dactylogyrus, an

Mycotic Diseases in Aquaculture - Exotic and Laboratory

A Comprehensive Guide to the Most Common Fish Fungus Disease

Fungal diseases - SEAFDEC/AQ

Fungal Diseases on Fishes - slideshare

  1. Among different infectious diseases, parasitic diseases were found to be the major cause of disease incidences in the freshwater aquaculture sector. During the period, a total 219 cases were being registered among which incidences of parasitic diseases accounted for 74.88% followed by bacterial diseases (12.80%), mixed bacterial and parasitic.
  2. Fungal Diseases of Fish Occur in Bangladesh 1.Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) EUS is a very serious disease of freshwater and some brackishwater fishes, external rapidly across South Asia over the past three decades,spread in sequential manner in Bangladesh(1988)
  3. Fungal diseases Eduardo M. Leaño What are fungi? 43 Major fungal diseases of fish 45 Major fungal diseases of crustaceans 49 Summary 52 CHAPTER FIVE Parasitic diseases and pests 55 of losses in aquaculture due to disease was about US$1.36 billion in 15 Asian countries in 1990. The situation is even worse at present with viral disease
  4. Continued research in basic mycology is still an essential resource for fish pathologists in diagnosing diseases caused by fungi. Although fungi reportedly affect very few species, fungal diseases, if not properly controlled or prevented, can still pose a threat to the aquaculture industr
  5. The major disease problems that occur in aquaculture ponds are parasitic, fungal, and bacterial in origin. Important disease problems that generally encounters are argulosis, LIRNEasia, protozoan diseases caused by Trichodina, Costia, Ichthyobodo, Myxosporidean diseases, gill flukes such as Dactylogyrus, and Gyrodactylus; fungal diseases such as saprolegeniasis, branchiomycosis, Epizootic.
  6. Disease management in aquaculture. Intensively cultured fish and shellfish are naturally susceptible to bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections, particularly at times of stress. Many problems can be avoided by appropriately quarantining new stock before release into culture tanks or ponds, maintaining water quality and a stress free.

Evolution of Pathogen Discovery in Shrimp Aquaculture. Prior to 1960 . 1970. 1980. 1990 . 2000 . 1966/1972 - CP (Unestam) 1942 - L. callinectes/ Larval Mycosis (Couch Tilapia Lake Virus (TiLV): a Globally Emerging Threat to Tilapia Aquaculture (UF FA-213) Fish Diseases - Fungal. Saprolegniasis (Winter Fungus) and Branchiomycosis of Commercially Cultured Channel Catfish (SRAC 4700) Non-infectious Diseases. Toxicities of Agricultural Pesticides to Selected Aquatic Organisms (SRAC 4600) Treatments and Biologic The following is a list of aquarium diseases.Aquarium fish are often susceptible to numerous diseases, due to the artificially limited and concentrated environment.New fish can sometimes introduce diseases to aquaria, and these can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Most fish diseases are also aggravated when the fish is stressed

The level of cereal yields and the quality of these yields depend, to a large extent, on a crop management system, the genetic potential of a given cultivar, but also on factors that may cause damage to plants or a reduction in yield. Such factors include fungal diseases of cereals, which may cause a reduction in yield by 15-20%, and in extreme cases even by 60% A Handbook of Shrimp Pathology and Diagnostic Procedures for Disease of Cultured Penaeid Shrimp. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge. Lightner, D.V., D. Moore and D.A. Danald. 1979. A mycotic disease of cultured penaeid shrimp caused by the fungus Fusarium solani. In: D.H. Lewis and J.K. Leong (eds.) It controls bacterial, fungal, algal diseases and protozoans like Zoothamnium. It De-Odurizes and purifies the pond water. It is specially prepared for safe use in aquaculture. It promotes good water quality, and kills fungus. It is useful to control gill diseases

Aquaculture - New Technologies and Trend: Disease

What is Cotton Wool Disease in Freshwater Fish? Cotton wool disease is caused by the bacteria Flavobacterium columnare. It is not a fungus, despite its fungus-like appearance. It can infect the skin and gills and is of great importance to the commercial aquaculture market. It is rarer in the pet fish community Straus's new research shows that copper sulfate also destroys the fungus on sunshine (hybrid striped) bass eggs, which are hatched in a different system—and very quickly (48 hours). The research was published in the North American Journal of Aquaculture in 2016. Copper sulfate is less expensive, too Despite its healthy growth, the aquaculture industry still faces problems with diseases which can affect its sustainability. Infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi and viruses are continuing threats to consistent industry growth. The heavy use of antibiotics could be detrimental to the health of fish Table 1. Pathogenic bacteria associated with biofilms in commercial aquaculture facilities. Bacillus cereus. Bacillus cereus is becoming more of a concern in the food industry because it is a hardy, spore-forming organism capable of surviving harsh conditions, including high temperatures.B. cereus ingestion can lead to vomiting or diarrhea after the spores germinate and produce either emetic.

7 Major Diseases of Fish (With Prevention and Treatment

1. Treatment is to identify diseases by examination. 2. Hollow belly is a symptom of fish infected by fungal disease. 3. Viruses can be visualized only through an electronic microscope. 4. Bacteria is an organism that live on organisms for food or nutrition. 5. Erratic swimming is a symptom of a fish infected by fungal disease. 6 In the aquaculture, the aquatic fungi become even more complex and variable due to the special environment of aquaculture. And pathogenic fungi have caused enormous losses to the aquaculture industry in the recent years (Falaise et al. 2016; Kumar et al. 2017; Bobadilla-Carrillo et al. 2020). Therefore, more attention should be given to the.

RASLine UV systems can play a vital part in aquaculture installations, by destroying bacteria, viruses, protozoans, cysts, spores, unwanted algae and other microorganisms. With systems ranging from capacities of under 1m3/hr to over 2,000m3/hr, RASLine UV provides an effective barrier to unwanted organisms in aquaculture systems' stock water Shrimp diseases are the shrimp farming industry's biggest concern. In Asia, diseases cost the shrimp industry billions of dollars annually (Shinn, et al., 2018). There are numerous diseases that cause this economic loss. This article will provide guidance to help you prevent shrimp diseases by going back to basics with farm management practices, biosecurity and shrimp health management

Oyster and Clam Diseases. The Bureau of Aquaculture monitors oyster and clam diseases during annual surveys, develops disease management guidelines, develops disease-resistant oyster strains in selective breeding programs and performs scientific research in collaboration with universities and government laboratories This study was designed to prevent fungal disease (Saprolegnia parasitica) that occurs on rainbow trout eggs (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by using wastes of onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) plants.For this purpose, fertilized rainbow trout eggs were exposed to garlic skin, garlic stem and onion skin aqueous methanolic extracts by bathing in concentrations of 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 g/L.

Shurtleff, Dana. Straus, David - Dave. Webster, Carl. The Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Cntr is located in Stuttgart, AR and is part of the Southeast Area. The Center Director is Carl Webster. Email: carl.webster@usda.gov. Phone: 870-673-4483. Fax: 870-673-7710. PO BOX 1050 In developing countries, fish diseases often spread quickly between small-scale aquaculture farms. Rising prevalence of infectious diseases such as bacterial diseases, viral diseases, and parasitic and fungal diseases amongst fish species remains a global issue for fish farmers Reduces incidence of viral, bacterial, protozoan and fungal diseases. Removal of ammonia reduces the occurrence of aquatic bloom which helps in improving the Shrimp/ Prawn/ Fish health. Therefore improves the quality of pond water and increases the oxygen content of the pond. DOSAGE. For Pond preparation: 20 to 40 Kgs / H Aquaculture is an important business in the state of Maine, with significant economic impact now and high potential for the future. An important component of successful aquaculture is the control of infectious disease, which has the potential to cause catastrophic failure of this enterprise. However, we still have a limited understanding of the fish immune system and its ability to fight.

Diseases of cultured yellow perch « Global Aquaculture

The ability of aquatic fungi to cause diseases in fish is well known. Potentially all freshwater, few marine water fishes and incubating eggs are susceptible to fungal infection. The most common fungal diseases of fish are saprolegniasis, disease caused by Achlya, branchiomycosis, epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) and ichthyophoniasis Fungal spores are common in aquaculture. When fish are attacked and weakened by other pathogens or parasites, fungi will penetrate damaged tissue, and a white cottony growth will appear. Disease is a relationship between a pathogen, a host, and the environment (F P Meyer, 1991). Saprolegniasis is a fungal disease caused by species of. Endemic Diseases for Florida Aquaculture • Finfish - Koi Herpesvirus (KHV) - Largemouth Bass Virus (LMBV) - Other parasitic, fungal and bacterial diseases • Molluscs - Perkinsosis - Multinucleate Sphere X (MSX) State Agricultural Response Team 07 Slides 7-9 3 Aquatic Animal Diseases Fritz Aquatics is one of America's leading water quality product manufacturers for aquarium, pond, water garden and aquaculture hobbyists and professionals. Back to Fungal Infections Treatments By Disease Fritz A+ Aquarium Salt Treatments By Disease.

Branchiomycosis (Gill Rot) - Fungal Diseases of Fis

In contrast, water below 15oC can cause a range of diseases in tilapia. Parasitic infections such as Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich) and costia (white spot diseases) are often opportunistic and attack weakened fish. - Advertisement -. Fungal infections and sensitivity. Fungus may also develop on tilapia exposed to low temperatures Bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, and poor water quality can cause various diseases in fish. Fish producers and fish hatchery managers worry about fish health because diseases can kill many. Detection of Viral Diseases. Because they are so small, viruses are often difficult to detect. Parasites, bacteria, or fungi are easier to detect than viruses, so diagnosticians first check to see if these other organisms are the cause of a specific disease before considering the possibility that a virus is responsible

PPT - Pros and Cons of Aquaculture PowerPoint PresentationCentral Institute of Freshwater AquacultureSouth Australian wine grapes may escape serious fungal(PDF) Shrimp diseases - histology book

Fish Diseases in Aquaculture The Fish Sit

& Aquaculture Department in The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture, 2018). Aquaculture production is vulnerable to diseases and changing environmental conditions. Disease STURGEON DISEASES IN AQUACULTURE portunistic infections (fungal, myxobacterial or protozoan) (Shchelkunov et al., 2009). Based on sequence analysis of the viral genome, it is determined that the SbSHV is a potential member of the genus Ictalurivirus within the famil Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food-production sectors but the economic impact that parasites and bacterial, fungal and viral diseases have on the industry is highly significant for the many countries that rely heavily on this industry This textbook on Health Management in Aquaculture is the beginning. Fungal diseases Eduardo M. Leaiio What are fungi? 43 Major fungal diseases of fish 45 Major fungal diseases of crustaceans 49 Summary 52 CHAPTER FIVE Parasitic diseases and pests 55 Erlinda R. Cruz-Lacierd

Fungal infections are not as deadly as bacteria infections but cause the fish a great deal of discomfort. The infection can affect the growth rate, feeding and quality of your fish if not checked. Diseases and Infection in Catfish will manifest in different ways. the fish might have erratic behvior, darting movement, pale skin, red eyes IV- MYCOTIC DISEASES. Fungi were reported to be responsible for many fish diseases. These fungi belong to a wide range of taxa and the most frequent are the water moulds belonging to Oomycetes. They are widespread in fresh water and represent the most important fungal group affecting wild and cultured fish Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food producing sectors of the world. However, disease outbreaks are increasingly recognized as significant constraints to aquaculture production and trade affecting both economic and social development in many countries. Within the shrimp culture sector, the number of diseases has expande Fungus sprays can be used when the weather is favourable or at the first signs of the disease. These include round, reddish brown spots on the older leaves and the appearance of a bare area near the crown, which becomes clearer when looking down the rows. If the fungus strikes at a later stage, these symptoms may appear only at the market.

Zoosporic disease major aquaculture issue Feedstuff

Fungal diseases External fungal disease: Achlya, Saprolegnia-visible to naked eye-- mainly infect superficial area mainly infect superficial area-- often found associated with other health often found associated with other health problems such as skin damage or low immunit Disease. Like all other common cyprinidae species, Empurau / Mahseer fish also have various of similar disease. This kind of disease were mostly caused by handling and water quality but in other cause some bacteria infection or fungus may occured. Fish diseases generally seperated based on several types, such as. Parasitic Diseases This special issue aims to cover emerging infectious diseases causing significant production loss in aquaculture. We hope to assemble a series of contributions offering a comprehensive view of emerging diseases in aquaculture caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungal agents and syndromic etiologies

Aquaculture is the production of aquatic organisms, includ­ing fish, mollusks, crustaceans, and aquatic plants, and the cultivation of freshwater and marine plants and animals under controlled conditions for all or parts of their life cycles. Because of restrictions on the wild harvest of many fish spe­cies, demand for farm-­raised options. means to increase the immune competency and disease Selvaraj et al. [16] observed that the highest antibody titre against resistance of fish and shellfish. The present review reports the A. hydrophila injected with β-glucan (100-1000 μg use of immunostimulants in aquaculture disease management. glucans/fish) Fish suffer from many external diseases (parasitic, fungal and bacterial) can be treated by this method. There are three types from bath treatments. The difference between these bath treatments is the concentration of the chemical applied and the period of time that the fish are in contract with chemical Fungal infections are characterised by white growths, like cotton wool, on the body and fins of infected fish. Usually fungus infects only fish which have suffered some wound or damage or are weakened or stressed from some other disease. The fungus is often identified as Saprolegnia, but several other species of fungus may also infect fish

Infectious Diseases in Aquaculture - Exotic and Laboratory

Agri and Aquaculture Biochemistry Bioinformatics & Systems Biology Business & Management Chemistry Clinical Sciences Engineering Food & Nutrition General Science Genetics & Molecular Biology Immunology & Microbiology Medical Sciences Neuroscience & Psychology Nursing & Health Care Pharmaceutical Sciences. Plant Fungi and Diseases Among the fish diseases, infectious bacterial and viral diseases are the most dangerous constraint to the sustainable expansion of aquaculture through the world. The major causative agents of infectious diseases in aquaculture include bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungus (Figure 1) This third and final volume in the acclaimed Fish Diseases and Disorders trilogy addresses infectious diseases of finfish and shellfish caused by viruses, bacteria and fungi. Topics covered include infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, infectious hematopoictic necrosis virus, viral diseases of cold and warm-water fish, rickettsial and chlamydial infections, furunculosis, motile aeromonads. Fungal infections are another category of diseases that can affect fish if proper tank conditions are not kept and fish have a compromised immune system. I'll discuss the symptoms, causes and treatment of two common fungal infections - the Body Fungus and the Cotton Fin Fungus. 1. Body Fungu

Carp Culture: Introduction, Carp Culture in India, Fish

Common Aquarium or Fish Farm Diseases & Treatments

reproduction, and increased disease. Stress reduction and prevention is critical to keeping fish healthy and growing fast. These stress events often result in diseases 10 to 14 days after the cause event. DISEASES Different aquaculture species have variable susceptibility to specific diseases. Some viral and bacteria Aquaculture is the world's fastest growing food production sector. A global review of fungal diseases of fish compared to bacterial or viral diseases. Fungal infections are easily recognized by mold-like growths. Noninfectious Diseases In addition to infectious agents, environmental stress, contaminants, and nutritional. Mohan, 2009). There is concern that climate change may further increase the risk to aquaculture posed by diseases through alterations in the distribution, prevalence and virulence of pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites), and changes in the susceptibility of the host species (Halvell et al., 1999)

Environmentally friendly control of common disease

Currently, aquaculture is the fastest growing animal food sector worldwide (FAO 2014). However, fish and shellfish production is limited by several emerging diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, amoebas and other ectoparasites UV DISINFECTION SYSTEMS IN AQUACULTURE. One of the biggest problem of the fish farms is the risk of diseases in big stock densities. In some case, pathogens can create enormous problems which can cause the complete shutdown of a facility with consequent great loss of money. The Ultraviolet disinfection systems is the easiest treatment to. Progress 10/01/13 to 09/30/14 Outputs Progress Report Objectives (from AD-416): The long-term objective of this project is to characterize the pathogenesis of fish diseases and to develop approaches to control diseases in warm water fishes. Over the next 5 years, our project at the Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center (SNARC) will focus on the following objectives: Objective 1 MBL Aquaculture 4569 Samuel Street Sarasota, FL 34233 v: 1-800-889-0384 f: (941) 922-3874 e: sales@mblaquaculture.com www.mblaquaculture.co

An introduction to fish health management The Fish Sit

The most important control against diseases is to plant healthy seed. Cutting costs by planting low-grade seed costs more in the end. The following disease may occur in this region. If you have this disease in your crop and cannot control it, consult a disease specialist for assistance. Fungal Diseases Diseases and health problems in freshwater fish farming can occur due to factors such as pathogens, poor water quality and stress. Pathogens causing contagious fish diseases include bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi. Fish diseases can be classified as contagious and non-contagious and may vary between species Bird protection netting in aquaculture farms has many benefits. It helps to prevent birds from attacking aquatic livestock and also prevent the spread of diseases. The nets are also sturdy, durable and economic to use

Richard PALEY | Centre for Environment, Fisheries and

Shrimp diseases biomin

for human infectious diseases and public health policies (Smith et al. 2005). The potential for disease outbreak dynamics to be med-iated by changes in climate and impact food production highlights the importance of establishing the current mac-roecological patterns of disease outbreaks in aquaculture at a global scale Shrimp Diseases, Symptoms, Prevention and Treatment: Today, let us discuss about Shrimp Diseases (Prawn). Introduction: Prawns /Shrimp suffer from various diseases that are infectious and non-infectious. Infectious diseases are infected due to viruses, bacteria, fungi and other parasites. Treatment is not properly if the diseases occur in the pond In the late 1990s, there were reports of disease problems causing significant losses on some commercial silver perch farms, including regular outbreaks of a fungal disease during winter. A project to address disease and health management issues commenced in 2001 and involved monitoring fish health at the Grafton Aquaculture Centre and on. RECOMMENDED FOR: All types of fungal and bacterial diseases. DOSAGE: Foliar Spray: Dilute 1 to 1.5 gms. in 1 liter for water or use 150 to 200 gms. per acre for foliar spray apply thrice at 3-4 days interval in case of sever attack for power sprayer use double the quantity. Seed Treatment: 50 gram of powder to be mixed in 2 to 3 ltr. of water for soaking 1 kg seeds keep it 2-3 hours, drying.